Arkansas River
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A flesher from the Arkansas
River in N.E. Oklahoma
Another flesher.
This one has
small serrations
on the scraping
edge. Hide
scraping was a
never ending task
usually done by
This is an unusually fine example, and has
been treated to preserve the bone.
Digging stick tip.
The Plains Villagers
did a lot of digging.
House construction,
trash pit
excavation, kilns
and fire pits,
storage pits, and
burials are
examples. They also
harvested wild
roots. These
artifacts have one
shoulder and were
tied to the end of a
stick. Note use
wear on tip.
Flaking tools from the Arkansas River
These pressure flaking tools are made of  antler and
assorted types of bone. Pressure flakers are used for
finishing and resharpening knives and points. Removing
flakes by pressure allows a great deal of control and a more
refined looking point. The hard stone wears the tool in a
distinctive way, pictured at right. Try it at home and see!
Two views of a set
of bone shaft
straighteners. The
long piece is deer
foreleg, and would
have eventually
been made into a
pin. The others are
Trigger Awl tips
Trigger Awls
Trigger Awls are made
from the ulna of
animals. Broken ulnas
often look like trigger
awls, so use wear will
determine if your find is
an artifact or just a
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